**This lesson plan is an elaboration of a lesson idea described in
Stainback, W. Stainback, S., and Stefanich, G. (1996). Learning Together
in Inclusive Classrooms: What About the Curriculum. Teaching Exceptional
Learners, 28 (3). 14-19.**

**Grade Level and Subject:** Fifth grade science/math

**Concepts:** Hot and Cold, Centigrade and Fahrenheit Scales, Conversion
Formulas,

Relationship Between Temperature, Diffusion, and Molecular Movement

**Background:** This lesson is part of a unit on the metric system.
Students will

have already worked with measures of distance, weight, and volume.

**Time Requirements: **Approximately 90 minutes

**Outcomes:**
**Low Functioning Students:**

1) Identify and describe the concepts of hot and cold

2) Correctly label and describe the uses of a thermometer

3) Read thermometers using both scales
**Average Functioning (Most) Students:**

1) Read thermometers using both scales

2) Convert from one scale to the other

3) Identify the temperature at which water boils and freezes expressed
in both

scales

4) Describe the relationship between temperature and diffusion
**High Functioning Students:**

1) Read thermometers using both scales

2) Develop/discover conversion formulas for Centigrade to Fahrenheit
and

Fahrenheit to Centigrade

3) Convert from one scale to the other

4) Identify the temperature at which water boils and freezes expressed
in both

scales

5) Describe and understand the relationship between temperature, diffusion,
and

molecular movement

**Materials/ Resources:**

Seven or eight thermometers with both Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales

Twenty-eight or thirty-two medium-sized beakers

Approximately two gallons of distilled water

Seven or eight ounces of red or blue dye

Equipment to heat the distilled water

Ice cubes and a refrigerator to cool the distilled water

Worksheets for student use in recording, converting, and determining
formulas

**Lesson Introduction:**

Today we're going to be learning about temperature and how it's measured.

(Holding up a thermometer) Can anyone tell me what we call this? Right,
it's a

thermometer, and that's what we call the instrument we use to measure

temperature. What unit of measurement do we use to indicate temperature?
(If

students don't understand, say, "Do we use inches or pounds?) That's
right, we

use degrees. What do you think our temperature is right now in this
room? (about

72 degrees) Does anyone know what scale we're using when we say it's
72 degrees

in the room? It's the Fahrenheit scale. Today we're going to use thermometers
to

measure temperature, and we're not only going to take these measurements
in

Fahrenheit units, but also in another scale called the Celsius or Centigrade

scale. Has anyone ever heard of that scale? Well, it's a Metric scale
that's

used in most other countries, including Canada. Have any of you been
to Canada

and listened to a weather report there? They give the temperature using
the

Celsius scale. It's also used by scientists, even in the USA. (Students
will

have already worked with other Metric scales to measure length, weight,
and

volume.)

**Lesson Activities:**

1) Students are placed in mixed-ability groups of four. Each group
should

consist of one higher-achieving student, two middle achievers, and
one

lower-achieving student.

2) Each group is provided with a thermometer, four beakers filled with
water of

different temperatures ranging from near freezing to approximately
110-120

degrees Fahrenheit (the temperature of hot, but not scalding, tap water),
a

small container of red or blue dye, and a work sheet with spaces for
recording

temperatures of the liquid in both scales.

3) Students will measure the temperature of the water in each beaker
and record

the temperatures in both scales.

4) Students will determine approximately what temperature constitutes
"hot" and

"cold" in each scale.

5) Students will pour the dye in each beaker and time how long it takes
to

diffuse (mix thoroughly) into the water. Students will then determine
a rule to

describe the relationship between temperature and diffusion. Students
will be

asked to speculate why diffusion occurs more quickly in hot water (molecular

movement is more rapid at higher temperatures).

6) Given the formula for converting Centigrade to Fahrenheit (9/5C
+ 32 = F),

students will be asked as a group to complete a worksheet with conversions
from

C to F (including freezing and boiling points). They will then be asked
to

develop a formula for reversing the process (going from F to C or C
= 5/9 F

-17.777) and to complete the other side of the worksheet requiring
these

conversions. If no group is able to develop the formula, provide it
for them.

Allow groups to use calculators.

7) If you wish, have your students check their work by consulting an
Internet Conversion Table.

**Assessment:**

1) Worksheets will be scored and a group grade recorded.

2) Information from this unit will be assessed as part of a metric
unit

assessment.

**Follow-up/ Extension Activities::**

1) Students will be asked to speculate why the Celsius scale is used
in most

other countries.

2) Interested students will find the origins of each scale.